evaluates the article in review titled: Homeland security risk and preparedness
in police agencies: The insignificance of actual risk factors, by Haynes and
Giblin which elaborates the readiness of our homeland security. The author’s of
this article, Haynes and Giblin, infer and examine the intricate plans of
action in policing and response towards alleged threats since September 11,
2001 and the adjustments to such devastating event and how it impacted the
functions of homeland security.
effects on that catastrophic day inspired the authors to compare similar
incidents versus the readiness of law enforcement and the response engagements
in effect. Subsequently, police departments are leading the front lines on the
war on terrorism in our homeland.
This study’s course of action began with a concerned
doctoral student by the name of Mellissa Hayes and her professor at the Department
of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Professor Matthew Giblins was captivated in defining the police response to
environmental influences and how the risk factors were determined amongst the
law enforcement agencies and how the statistical outlook from empirical data
and contingency theory applied in the process. Their thesis statements focus on
the lack of measured standards that associate with the risks at hand to inform
the law enforcing agencies the correct response methods for the projected
The directed study is expects to emulate
anticipated risk factors for homeland security and the response effects to
those threats. Moreover, the examiners hope to establish a statistic that
captures the weight of the risk and manifests a quantified predictability for
Since the September 11 drastic blows our
country received it became evident that our law enforcement agencies and first
responders needed restructuring. That day manifested a tragic event which
signaled needed change as the police departments are expected to be in the
frontline fighting terrorism (Falcone, Wells & Weisheit, 2002). Therefore,
we must train our force to take head on terrorist activities in the future.
Based on the researchers views, collected statistical data obtained over the
years may reveal in fact substantial evidence that may predict such homeland
security incidents in the future.
Various trained methods have been implemented
to combat such threats since that day, while appropriated funding became
priority as the federal government has been on the forefront in supporting the
police to achieve preparedness (Falcone, Wells & Weisheit, 2002). Moreover,
to build a professional qualified force grants and machinery were introduced in
aid to provide homeland security adequate assets supporting the efforts. Since
then, researchers attempted to standardize threat levels and evaluate the
casual factors behind the disparities.
According to the Homeland Security Council, many
researchers referred to empirical studies and contingency frameworks to
document their claims as these agendas reflect constant response to
environmental issues. Theses administrative goals based on empirical studies
have consistently found a relationship between risks and police homeland
security activities (Homeland Security Council, 2007).
studies have attempted to outline the occurrences previously discussed about
threats to our country. Therefore, the authors presume an abundant amount of
supporting data, which display police engagement in various actions to
alleviate the presented risks. These studies demonstrate that Local Police
departments mediate information with state police agencies, which in turn
provide specialized homeland security training. Homeland security policy is
applied by a vast array of agencies which researchers relate the contingency
theory to factor that most organizations are dynamic (Gerber, 2005). Due to
vigorous elements in the line of work, many agencies relate to contingency to
establish the likelihood of an event and determine an appropriated response in
order to successfully mitigate the risks.
Donaldson 2001 explains
the differences between contingency theory and SARFIT as disequilibrium where
an organization remains fit temporarily, until the surplus resources from the
fit-based higher performance produce expansion therefore causing adaptation in
order to balance the odds and regain the fitness levels. This translates in to
the police departments and the risk involved (Donaldson, 2001). This approach
has been effectively implemented in the training and actions of homeland
security as the statistics do correlate and draw out specifics in certain
threat areas. Even so, the organizational risks are inevitable and may produce
alterations in readiness (Homeland Security Council, 2007).
Giblin also present the best ways to develop a calculation method is by
engaging the threat vulnerability consequences (TVC) model, which requires the
combination of threats, vulnerability, and consequences (Donaldson, 2001).
Despite the models benefits, it still experiences complications in its
operation as it cogitates goals, motives and terrorist capabilities. Subsequently,
the objective risk is broadly categorized as a factor of vulnerability
(Falcone, Wells & Weisheit, 2002). Such exposures can categorize societal
groups and label population possessing high threat index thresholds. These
rankings can pinpoint populations in specific physical locations. Such vulnerabilities
are considered the property of the built environment that makes an area more
prone to harm (Falcone, Wells & Weisheit, 2002).
also used empirical approaches in researching exposures and their effects and
relationships on perceived risks, however researchers are eager to ruminate
over the impartial risk factors discussed in Roberts, 2012 study.
approach explores gathered data over an extensive timeframe with the main
source being conducted by the national surveys of the government statistical
department. This study meters homeland security preparedness and perceived the
risk of terrorism (Homeland Security Council, 2007). The frame encapsulated by
the research revises the 2004 census of state and local law enforcement agencies
which is a used as a measuring tool to determine organizations comprising the
law enforcement population demographics (Gerber, 2005).
Haynes and Giblin established the depended
variable to reveal preparedness. Therefore, homeland security agencies apply these
stages in prevention, response, and recovery episodes.
evaluation, the independent variable is set to a total of thirty-five separate
indicators. The researchers adapt the TVC model in developing the independent
variables (Donaldson, 2001). The items are entered into the analysis in bits
according to theoretical expectations. According to Haynes and Giblin, their
results indicate a positive correlation of their findings. They state that
homeland security shows a positive relation between perceived risks of a
terrorist attack and the preparedness of the motherland security (Falcone,
Wells & Weisheit, 2002).