Road that the number recorded for road crashes in

Road crash is one of the common causes of death in the Philippines along with personal health and suicide. The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) said that the number recorded for road crashes in the Philippines has been increased since 2006 until now. According to the latest data gathered, the record in 2006 for road accidents has only 6,869 deaths. It was increased by 45.76% in 2015 with the total of 10,012 deaths. An average of 34 Filipinos die per day in road accidents range from 15 to 64 years old. The increase of death toll in the Philippines cause by road accidents is a big problem and people must take this problem serious. It has to be solve to lessen or to prevent road accidents. Majority of the victims are males and it continues to increase its number while female victim decreases. Although the records for female victims is still high despite the number of road accident victims increase drastically. Among all the regions, Metro Manila has the highest number of victims. Metro Manila has an area of 619.57 sq. kilometer. Based on National Statistics Office of the Philippines (NSO) and National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) census of population (2015), Metro Manila or National Capital Region (NCR) has a population of nearly 12.88 million. Metro Manila is considered as the center of culture, economy, education and government. It is one of the busiest regions in the Philippines. Having a huge population in a small region, road accident always happens within Metro Manila. Assistant Secretary Mark Richmund de Leon of Department of Transportation (DOTr) said there are about 262 road crashes in Metro Manila. The motorcycle has the biggest percentage of 53% in road accident within Metro Manila.  Based on the statistics of Metro Manila Accident Recording and Analysis System or MMARAS, from January to September of 2017, there were 75,399 road accidents with 285 fatal, 10,793 nonfatal injuries, and 64,321 in damage property. The data gathered in MMARAS shows that Quezon City, Manila, and Makati City have the most number of road accidents. According to Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), the most accident prone roads as of July 2017 are Commonwealth Avenue, Alabang-Zapote Road, and Epifanio Delos Santos Avenue (EDSA). Elpidio Quirino Avenue, also known simply as Quirino Avenue and formly Manila-del Monte Garay Road, is a four-lane undivided arterial running parallel to Roxas Boulevard and its extension, the Manila-Cavite Expressway, to the west from Baclaran at Parañaque border with Pasay. It is designated as a component of Manila’s Radial Road 2 network. Quirino Highway has a length of 5.6 kilometer. It is one of the top five most dangerous roads now as of October 2017 along with the three accident prone roads and C-5. It is considered as the third most accident prone roads in Metro Manila. The accident toll on this highway is nearly 2,000 already. It has around 222 pedestrian deaths or injuries, 218 driver casualties, and 121 passenger casualties. Despite of being among the top 5, there are only few studies that conduct on road accidents in Quirino highway. The researchers decide that this will be the study area for the research.  Some of the causes of road accidents are from human behaviour and vehicle defect. Executive Director of Safe Kids Worldwide Philippines (SKWP) said the main cause of road accidents is over speeding together with counter flowing, drunk driving, losing control of the vehicle, and illegal turning. Some people do not know the proper use of signal lights. The purpose of signal lights is to give warnings to the people around the driver that he or she will change lane or to turn left or right. Some people do not use this function and mostly they just change lanes without using signal lights. A report by Philippine National Police (PNP) – Highway Patrol Group (HPG) said that changing lanes without the use of signal lights is considered illegal turning. Changing lanes rapidly without using the side mirrors can cause road accidents too. Speeding rank second and wrong overtaking comes to third in ranking based on police data. Though it is mainly on human behaviours and vehicle defects, Civil Engineers must also consider its environment as a factor that causes road accidents. It can be the road structure itself such as road obstruction, lightning conditions, different weather conditions on the road, period of the day, pavement conditions, situation on incoming junction or intersection, slopes and curves present in the road, and the volume of the vehicles on the road dependent of time.