Pure alcohols and mixture of
alcohols with water are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry, enology,
and cosmetics and also used as a source of energy 153-155.
Complex interactions observed
between alcohols and water. Through H-bonding both water and alcohols are self
associated. Alcohols contains hydrophobic group as well as hydrophilic -OH
group. Both the groups show different mode of interactions towards water.
H-bond formed between water and alcoholic hydrophilic –OH group. There is
normal water structure disrupts during hydrophilic interactions. In hydrophobic
interaction alkyl group promotes water molecule structure surrounding the
group. Water-Alcohols interaction study has importance to know hydrophilic and
hydrophobic interactions so it has considerable importance in solution
chemistry field. Water + alcohol solutions shows both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
interactions effect 156.
During mixing of components there
is contraction and expansion effect occurs. It affects on sign and magnitude of
excess molar volume (VE).
responsible for contraction on mixing are 157
interactions- Dipole-dipole interactions, Dipole-induced dipole interactions.
of chemical interaction.
of molecule of component geometrically.
water rich region hydrophobic hydration interaction occurs in which highly
ordered water surrounds organic solute.
component occupy void spaces of other molecule it possible when there is large
difference in molecular size.
responsible for expansion on mixing are
one or both components dissociated.
bond formed is weaker than solvent-solvent and solute-solute bond.
of geometry in molecules.
The excess molar volume VE
is calculated by use of following equation
Where, M1, M2 are molecular weights, X1, X2 are mole
fractions and ?1, ?2
are density of components 1 & 2 respectively of binary mixtures. ?12 is the mixtures density
3.2. Literature Survey
M.H. Kabir et. al. studied excess
molar volume and density of methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol in water and surf
excel + water solutions. Density measurement was carried out for 0.05 to 0.1 %
surf excel in water and also methanol, ethanol and n-propanol in water.
Temperature range was from 303.15 to 323.15 K for whole composition range 159.
Caibin xiao et.al. has worked on
density and excess molar volume of methanol + water. For temperatures from 323
K to 573 K. Densities was measured using vibrating tube densimeter. The data
treated with modified corresponding states model depends on pure water
Jose V. Herraez, R. Belda reported density, excess
molar volumes and refractive index of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol,
2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol in water at temperature 298.15 K. refractive indices
variation with temperature determined in temperature range (278.15 to 338.15) K
at atmospheric pressure161.
Zadjia Atik worked on excess molar
volume and densities of binary mixture like 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with
1-propanol, 2-propanol also in acetone + water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol,
2-propanol with water. Ternary mixture used are water + acetone +
2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water + methanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water +
ethanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, water + 1-propanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol,
water + 2-propanol + 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol at temperature of 298.15 K and
pressure 101 kpa 162.
Hideki mori et.al. have worked on
densities and excess molar volume of binary mixtures of methanol, ethanol,
1-propanol in water, ethanol + 1-propanol. Ternary mixtures used are water +
methanol + ethanol, water + ethanol + 1-propanol, water + methanol +
1-propanol; quaternary mixtures used are water + methanol + ethanol +
1-propanol. Measurements were carried out at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, 328.15 and
338.15 K. results correlated with NRTL type equation 163.
Marion Martinez-reina and Eliseo
Amado Gonzalez studied density, excess properties and refractive indices of
binary mixtures of water, hexane, heptane and octane with ethanol at
temperatures 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15 K. over entire range of
composition at atmospheric pressure. Fourth order Redlich-Kister equation used
for determining the adjustable parameters 164.
Tong-Chun Bai et.al. Worked on
density, excess molar volume of binary mixtures DMF + water, ethanol + water,
DMF + ethanol and ternary mixture of N,N-dimethylforamide + ethanol + water at
T=298.15 K were reported. some empirical expressions were used to correlate and
predict tertiary excess molar volumes 165.
Dikko A.B. et.al. Worked on
density, excess molar volume, partial molar volume, viscocity and excess
viscocity of panadol in water + methanol at temperature 309.15 K. measurement
were carried out over entire percentage range of methanol 166.