Part green chemistry manages waste to lower the quantity

            Part B of the lab called for green
chemistry; green chemistry manages waste to lower the quantity of waste through
changing how chemicals can be disposed of for a move towards a green world. After
part A was conducted, part B had us take the hydrochloric acid and zinc
reaction to test the pH level to see if we could dump it in the “sedimentation
station”. After adding NaOH, the pH monitor was used to see if the reaction was
neutralized. If the pH meter reached 8-9 then it was appropriate to dump into
the provided station.

            There were sources of errors that arose
in this experiment. One source could’ve come from the large difference in
diameter, length and mass in sample 10 from the overall class data. This could be
an example of reading something incorrectly or not zeroing out the balance
which could drastically change the data needed to determine the standards. Another
error could’ve occurred if all nails reacted to hydrochloric acid at the same
time. It would be difficult to keep a consistent time for all nails; time
management is important, because it maintains the accuracy we want for every
reaction. If one nail was left longer than another, that nail could be dissolving
not only the zinc, but possibly the iron as well. This could cause the mass,
length, diameter and overall appearance to change from what the data calls for.
In our lab, each nail was timed independently, but it is unknown if all groups
maintained the same procedure.

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            The purpose of this lab was to
determine the quality of the zinc coating of the individual nails. Through
this, the galvanized nails can be compared to two industry standards: the
higher standard being 1 oz. of coating per square foot^3 and the lower standard
being 0.28 oz./ft^2. By using 6M hydrochloric acid on the nails, the zinc
coating can be removed then the mass lost (g) can be calculated. In the 5 nails
that were used in my lab, I found that the average was BLANK g/mm2 and
the overall class average was BLANK g/mm2.

Discussion and Conclusions:

 

Amount:

20
mL of NaOH

30
mL of NaOH

40
mL of NaOH

50
mL of NaOH

pH
level

 

 

 

 

observation

 

 

 

 

Table 3: The results of adding NaOH
to the acidic reaction

Part B:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mass loss of zinc / surface area

            After both calculations are found,
we can determine the mass loss/mm2:

Initial mass – final mass

            To find the loss of zinc mass (g):

h represents the length of each nail

A= 2?rh + 2?r2

            To find the surface area
calculation:

Table
2 shows the average of the groups in the lab. Each group entered its averages
for initial and final mass as well as the length, diameter. The calculation
(below) then determined the mass loss/mm2. 60 nails were tested and
the average surface area for all the nails was BLANK.

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Length(mm)

38.2

38.1

38.2

39

39.1

38.8

38.6

39.1

39

14.34

39.4

38.4

Diameter(mm)

2

2

2.1

2

1.88

2

2.08

2.2

2

0.9

1

2

Initial
mass(g)

1.2061

1.2102

1.1602

1.195

1.21

1.1948

1.194

1.183

1.193

1.193

1.203

1.183

Final
mass (g)

1.174

1.109

1.082

1.110

1.11

1.144

1.099

1.091

1.100

1.098

1.105

1.098

Mass
loss/mm2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Averages of the galvanized
nails

 

Table
1 shows the findings for my group and the observations that were experienced.

Trial #

1

2

3

4

5

Length

40
mm

38
mm

38
mm

40
mm

38
mm

Diameter

2
mm

2
mm

2
mm

2
mm

2
mm

Start time

0.0
min.

0.0
min.

0.0
min.

0.0
min.

0.0
min.

Stop time

5.00
min.

5.00
min.

5.00
min.

5.00
min.

5.00
min.

Initial mass (g)

1.196

1.237

1.179

1.201

1.167

Final mass (g)

1.118

1.320

1.094

1.107

1.081

observations

Bubbles
were forming from the bottom to the top, foaming, it was hot to the touch, it
had a burnt smell, it had a clear color.

Bubbles
were forming as well as smoking occurred. It had a burnt smell with a hot
touch and a clear color

Bubbles
were forming and foaming with smoke. It had a burnt smell with a hot touch
and a clear color

Most
bubbles were produced from this one, it smoked a lot with a burnt smell, a
hot touch and clear color

Bubbles
and foam formed with smoke as well as a burnt smell, a hot touch and a clear
color

Table 1: Galvanized Nails

Part A:

Results:

            The first step was to obtain 75 mL of
2M NaOH, this compound is known as a base and it will help lower the acidic
levels. In the waste beaker, 20 mL of NaOH was added into the acid reaction;
the pH meter was placed into the solution to test the pH level. NaOH was added
4 more times at 10 mL each time before it reached a neutralized state. After
the observations were recorded, the waste beaker was taken to the
“sedimentation station” to be disposed of.

            The second part of the experiment
involved the introduction of waste management and how to dispose of materials
properly. In this lab, hydrochloric acid and zinc were combined to create an acidic
solution, this was determined by a blue litmus paper which showed the pH to be
below 7 (acidic). When hydrochloric acid and zinc react with each other, it
causes the zinc to become zinc chloride and hydrochloric acid to become
hydrogen. Zn2++ HCl à
ZnCl + H. This reaction is known as single displacement, because one element
replaces another to form a new element and compound on the product side (Exton).
Because the single displacement reaction occurred, the acidic solution needed
to be neutralized before it could be disposed of, meaning it cannot go down the
drain or thrown in the trash.

            The purpose of this lab was to determine if five
different nails met the standard of the industry’s surface area. This was done
by conducting five trials on five different nails with 6M hydrochloric acid
(HCl). First, five nails were obtained, and each nail was measured in length,
diameter and mass. The length was measured with a ruler, the diameter was
measured with a caliper and the mass was measured with a balance. The nails
were placed into small, individual test tubes and then completely covered in 6M
hydrochloric acid for approximately five minutes. After doing this, all nails
were retrieved and rinsed off with water via a wash bottle. Each nail had its
mass reweighed and recorded. The purpose of measuring the initial and final
mass helped us determine the zinc amount by weighing the nail before and after
the reaction. By doing so, the lab was able to determine if each nail did or
did not meet the standards of the surface area set forth.

Methods:

            The second part of this experiment
will come when its time to dispose of waste. The lab will learn how to manage
the waste to help minimize the waste amount. After the lab is conducted, the
waste will need to be neutralized to help minimize the quantity of waste being
produced. By doing so, the future of a green world can be helped through green
chemistry which is exactly what chemistry and the lab is aiming to do.

            In this lab, this experiment will consider
the coating on galvanized nails. Galvanized nails are nails that have been
layered in a zinc coat to protect the iron of the nail from rusting for a
period of time(BLANK). The zinc is used as coating to slow the process of
rusting from occurring, although, this process is inevitable. However, the
thicker the zinc coat, the longer the zinc will last. There are two different
coating methods that exist to allowing the zinc to be applied to the nail. The
first method of galvanization is electro-galvanizing (electrolysis).
Electrolysis is a coating that is formed by an electroplating process. Although
it has a clean finish and uniform coating, this process has a low-quality life
(BLANK). The second method is known as “hot dipping”, this means that the nail
will be dipped into a molten bath of Zinc to obtain the coat necessary for
protection (BLANK). This process has a thicker coat and it will acquire a
higher quality of life compared to the first method, but it will have a less
uniform and dull appearance. By having a less uniformed coating applied to the
nails, industry standards need to establish the average coating of each nail. The
highest industry standard for galvanized nails is an average of 1 oz. of
coating per square foot^3. A slightly lower standard within the industry is
0.28 oz./ft^2 (BLANK). By conducting this experiment, the quality of the
coating on the nail will be exposed to determine its standard. A low standard
means that the zinc has a low-quality of protection for the nail compared to a
higher standard galvanized nail.

Introduction:

Title:  Lab
1: Galvanized Nails