Napoleon once warned, “China is a sleeping giant. Let her sleep, for
when she wakes she will shake the world.”
United states has been the superpower of the word for
almost two centuries and still is, but no one can deny the evidence that China
is a powerful emerging nation. With almost a quarter of the world population,
its massive size and a rapid modernization, China is creating structure capable
to catch up with the United States and emerge as the next superpower.
The People’s Republic of China is located in East
Asia along the Pacific Ocean. It is a vast country with the North East and
South East part being considered the most modernized and developed part of
China containing 95% of Chinese population, while the rest of the country would
be qualified as more rural than urban and is less developed due to the various
deserts and inhabitable zones that occupies China. It is one of the oldest
countries ever documented with record dating back 3,500 years ago and 5,000
BCE. China has a particular geographical position that allowed little to no
interaction with other countries except it wanted so. It is by itself really
geographically secure and could be compared to a fortress due to the fact that
the ocean and the Himalayas border it on each side and the only road that does
not pose a barrier would be its Northwestern borders along Kazakhstan.
China is a sovereign state with an illiberal
democracy and an authoritarian country ruled by a communist party for more than
68 years. Its stable and multiparty democracy is established through the world
based on various and strong alliances. The country itself is known for many things
but especially for its advances in technology, futuristic and innovative
approach to invent and for the biggest open market in the world economy.
The progress China made through the years are
incredibly advanced at a point where its increase in power compared to most
countries would make it the principal contender as the future superpower of the
world. The mains strengths of China are its powerful economy, which is backed
up by its gigantic reservoir of labors and resources available in the country.
The Chinese socialist market is the second world biggest market and economy by
nominal GDP with the world largest economy by purchasing power as mentioned on
Wikipedia.com. Until lately China has been the world fastest growing economy
due to its incredible growth in this last 30 years.
its leaders and government the economy of China is the main preoccupation because
it would determine its military power and future organization. China is such an
important and large country that it has to be kept under economic stability.
Also not to mention as one of the elements of power a
nation capability to defend, defeat and counter attacks are importants factor
of military potential and influence. With the world largest military force in
addition to this manpower China also a nuclear power, could reign and attack
anywhere in between Europe, America, Oceania or even its own borders. China has
a standing force of around 750 millions of manpower available, with 2,6 million
of active trained soldier and 1,5 millions reservists. In addition to this
wealthy manpower China has enough weapons to attack and control United States,
Europe, Russian or even its Asian neighbors.
The use of force of China has shifted as its
international relation increase, from mainly a defensive country which doctrine
was to always call when an opponent breached to its wall, to a country of pure
power developing a new way of combat with war under “high technology”, China
does not stop the progress. The Chinese doctrine principles remained the same
from the first days of the Empire until recently. China proves to empower its
international relations during the Korean conflict in 1950 or in Vietnam in
1979 warning them of their traditions and attacking them for the protection of
the country. Because of how these actions were critical for its own safety China
simply changed and now reacts with direct force every time hostiles signs are
shown close to its boarders.
Alternatively China use of diplomatic
forces also greatly changed. In the last year its effort to secure the Western
boarders greatly increase with a design optimized for future warfare. To
maintain a good control and defense China reached agreements which what could
be seen as future alliances with various countries like Myanmar, India,
Kazakhstan and the biggest of all, Russia. Both of these countries share the
same fear of United States and Western intervention into their own business and
Basically Countries like India, China or
Iran have tied with China and one day could form a powerful alliance in
furtherance to dominate its objectives.
Besides its economy, military power and,
more has been written about how population matters in China than anything. Its
population is the largest in the world with over thirteen billions China has
the world’s largest population and the fourth largest territory. It first
restricted the economy and created serious misbalance between regions in China
but ended up being a big reason for its development; it is only after that
China started to make efficient use of its population that it became rich. It
first started with the unemployed of its less educated population creating
better manpower. When China opened their door to the West culture the Chinese
population learned the rules to emerge as a leading nation, since a long time
and after the birth of Confucius teachings China has always been obsessed with
having a good education. Education is valued as one of the first step to
success in the country.
beginning of China’s economic revolution and freedom, Deng Xiaoping had the plan
to creat a reform called the “Four
Modernizations’: modern agriculture, industry, national defense, and science
and technology.” And proposed in 1983 ‘Three Orientations’ for the Chinese
education system: education must be acquired for modernization, globalization,
and to the future.
The Chinese emphasis over having educated
and competitive population isn’t the only factor that pushed them to be
modernized. During the 19th century the lack of power in Chinese
education, tradition and technologies gave westerners power over the country
which pushed China to concern about its future.
According to research China will top the
world in term of education and with the trend of its people studying abroad going on, number will
continue to grow and positively affect China to become the leading superpower.
China is the actual most powerful state in Asia due
to its tremendous development and growth acquired by its traditions, culture, history,
population and diversity. It is said that it would surpass all other leaders by
2050 as mentioned on October 21, 2017 in an article made by The Independent.
As Gary Locked mentioned, “China’s history is marked by thousands of years of world-changing
innovations: from the compass and gunpowder to acupuncture and the printing
press. No one should be surprised that China has re-emerged as an economic
China has always been on of the richest nation, its
rapid rise from an emerging agricultural country to a dominant industrial
empire took shorter than usual to achieve leaving many economists and
politicians with open mouthed. Its development and attempt to industrialization
was divided in three phases.
During World War II The People’s Republic of China
was governed by a Soviet government making it a Communist country. With its
important geography and great amount of resources it played little role in the
economy. At this time the borders of china were basically closed to international
market, which partially slowed down its development. The communist party in
China gave really little to the country, after the revolution and the end of
the war China emerged with new politics and operated in different ways.
Since then, the economy of China has constantly
grown. Government regulation evolved and allowed more freedom to the Chinese
market with the years leaving the old communist and capitalist method of China
in the past. The fact that government allowed business to grow and expand through
the world was an important phase in the history of China and really helped for
further development. With these changes it permitted unemployment rate and
homeless rate to decrease. It also permitted the great international market and
trade in China that later became a strong. This reform was started in 1978
until present and is considered is one of the most important economic and
geopolitical revolution in the world, by this time China’s capital income was
only one third of the one in Sub-Sahara Africa and right now China is emerging
as the world most powerful manufacturer. By this time China entered its reform
era with his new successor encouraging urbanization and a socialist market
economy. Since then it has continuously grown because of how the new government
allowed freedom to businesses.
Because of the rapid evolution of its economic status
since industrial revolution happened, China has not studied one of the greatest
problem that would come with a big growth, pollution. Cities in China like
Beijing are considered to be some of the most polluted in the world if not the
most, with the rapid expansion and development of cities it quickly became
uncontrollable making them heavily and dangerously polluted. With the creations
of firms, with more cars and trucks, more demand of resources an increase in
exhaust emission and energy happened.
more that 75% of China’s energy coming from burning coal, on of the dirtiest
and most toxic substances to be burnt, its population started developing
various illnesses like asthma or lung disease. With these data being shown to
the world, the government needs to make stricter laws about pollution for the
benefit of the country promoting reduction in air pollution and more
sustainable ways for China to grow and find resources.
to this China has experiences great profits and developments in less than 40
years providing infinite opportunities to more than a billion people and not
only benefits them but also the nations surrounding China like India or japan.
It is a sign of future world super power to have an intelligent and diplomatic
economic system. But also notice that this rapid economic growth lead to
serious environmental problems that were over looked but that is now slowing
down the success of China; it was published that about 6.5% of the annual Gross
Domestic Product of China is lost because of air pollution, according to RAND
To resolve this problem China is actually using a new
“anti pollution” plan which goal was set up on August 21, it has been published
by nytimes.com that “environmental authorities ordered more than
two dozen cities in northern China, including many main steel production
centers, to reduce air pollution by 15 percent this winter,” which would slowly
allows its economic looses to go back to normal pace.
For further industrialization and economic growth it
has been clear that China’s used globalization as one of its dominant strategy. Lately globalization have also
been really beneficial for China where leaders around the world are thinking
about alternative and solutions to in fact cooperate with the already powerful
nation that China is. As far as China is concerned its process of globalization
dates to 1978 when the actual political leader, Deng Xiaping introduced new
reforms and especially a new economic reform.
Perhaps more importantly It is known that China’s
economic market is linked with the success and gains of others countries and
populations, arguably there are much advantages from the globalization of its
economy. The integration of International trade in China can be illustrated
nowhere better than by its performance since 1978. By 1996 the country entered
in the top 10 of the biggest trading Nations and took part of more than 4
percent of the world total trade. Its rapid rise as one of the biggest
international business brought to China multiple successes as an exporter and
since 2009 made China the biggest exporter of good in the world.
Additionally Foreign Direct Investment played another
role in the globalization of China and has been remarkably good for China’s
integration in the world economy. Foreign Direct investment has permitted China
to grow by diversifying its exportation through the world and was accompanied
by great advances in technology, labor, manufacturing and other skills that
increased the productivity and economy of China. With this being such an
important concept for China, it has to exercise strict control to maintain the
Foreign Direct Investment and its economy. These strict controls of the market
increased flexibility and structural adjustment over current accounts and
increased the important ability of China to control and reverse the crisis.
These controls helped to prevent attack and fraud on the Chinese currency and
Since it is difficult to prescribe and draw the
situation of China at this moment to make a detailed conclusion about its
future situation, I predicted the following scenario. With the government being
aware of China’s development, it will more policies to resolves its problems
and challenges. In agriculture more land will be reserved for China’s
production and advantage making the agricultural production more efficient.
Furthermore China will adopt less dependence to chemicals because of their
environmental laws. With this being said China would invest in better
modernization in rural area, to improve its incomes and inter-regional
inequalities between the East and the rest of China. In addition China will
keep strengthening its combat force and its political party. The biggest
investment planned for the next 30 years will be toward its human capital,
energy development, innovation, defense, communication, environment and biology
which could make China surpass the United States. But if these current policies
are not working in favor of the country, based on the fact that all country
evolve at the same pace, China growth will slow down and increase its
unemployment. On the other hand if the policy are correctly working China will
be able to maintain its growth, reducing unemployment and the various
inequalities in the country. In this case with the higher production rate it
will have by the time, China will have enough military, technology, and
diplomatic power to become the global superpower of the world.
Overall from what can be seen China is preparing to
challenge United States and the world. As I demonstrate in the paper, China as
expanded subsequently with its national securities changing its way to operate
with national forces, developing modern war machines and greater technological
capabilities to any type of conflict or resistance. Over the last 50 years
changed has changed from a simple developing country to a fully-grown and
powerful country, proofs shows tat it has become really important in both political
and economical ways to the world and in fact the transformation continue to
gradually take form. This situation presents China with opportunities to change
the roles of power currently defining the global structure.
was vigilant to western nation and was only driven by self defense but since
then they opened their borders to western culture China demonstrated interest
in the rest of the world but, at the same time, China has to ensures that its
image and reputation to the world does not alter with the upcoming change it
what can be seen China is trying to invest in multilateral democracy to support
its interest, in this way china builds up a good image as an “responsible
power”. Indeed the increased
participation of China in global securities increased as the same time its
leadership position in the United Nations, World Health organizations or in the
Trade. China revolutionized its mindset and ways to operate to a more
open-minded, flexible and pragmatic one affecting its economic and politic
activity in policymaking leading to greater future and opportunities.