James Madison is the primary writer of this paper. He begins it by saying that a union that is put together well can help to make sure political groups do not cause any problems. He insists that political groups are not a good thing. He says they can cause confusion, instability, and injustice. He mentions that other governments have ceased to exist because of political groups. Giving an example of how they are bad. He says that citizens are complaining that the common good is often pushed aside because of political groups. He also believed that the rights of minority groups often get overlooked by the rights of majority groups. Madison then goes on to define political groups as citizens getting together for a common reason, either for or against other people’s rights. He suggests two ways to get rid of political groups. They are getting rid of its causes or its effects. He then goes on to give two ideas to get rid of the cause of a political group. They are getting rid of its liberty and making sure that everyone has the same opinion. He then talks about both of these won’t work. He says we can’t get rid of liberty because it is essential. Everyone will always have different opinions and interests, you can’t change that. With a representative democracy, there can’t be one big political group that is controlling the majority. He says that our representatives can sometimes even be corrupt, but with this type of government it can help to prevent corrupt people from having too much influence. He says if there are too many people that are part of a republic they can end up being too distant from their representatives. It’s the same as if there are too many representatives they can be too distant with the people they are representing. But it’s actually a good thing if there is a large amount of people that are in the United States. This can help to keep from one political group having the majority opinion. Political groups, however, can easily influence their state since it is a smaller area, but they are a lot less likely to spread that influence any further than that. He says this is how political groups will be maintained.