In engagement an individual has the more they will

In the view of academicians, it is thought that the ability
to recall and obtain information simply relies on one’s instincts and level of
experience (Byers and freeman 1983).  Research done has argued that teaching
structures tend to be less effective than they should be (Christina and Bjork
1991 and Schmidt and Bjork 1992). This is primarily due to individuals who are
responsible for teaching not knowing the effective conditions or structures,
therefore relying on instincts. 

This kind of teaching structure is often damaging to learners,
due to the fact educators have no knowledge on whether information taught is
being retained long term, and base ease of understanding on how successful the
session was. When student remember little of what they have learnt in the past
it is often assumed that they have made progress in their learning (Bjork
1994).  There are a few individuals in
the education sector that believe that there is a benefit to reducing the amount
of information a learner has to take in (Sweller and Chandler 1994). However,
it is stated that making information difficult to learn can increase memory recall
in the future (Bjork, 1994).

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(Craik and Tulving 1975) also
states that the more cognitive engagement an individual has the more they will
be able to retain information, therefore if the information is hard to learn in
the long run it is likely to improve learning and the amount of time the brain
can store that information, this is when information is made harder in order to
improve learning. Thus, making it harder for the learners, however it can slow
the process of learning but over the time it is believed that this process will
lead to being able to hold onto information for longer periods of time. This is
shown in the study that has been done in the past by (Richland, Bjork, Finley, and Linn 2005) which
states the benefits of imposing difficulties within the learning process,
requiring participants within the study to find words in a word pair that led
to the participants having a higher ration rate of the word pairs rather than
when the words were shown as a single word, despite the fact that this method
made much more complex to learn the information. Links have been made between
keyboard typing speed and hand writing.  If
a learner is slow at both keyboard typing speed and hand writing, it is likely
more mental resources are applied due to the fact that they find it much more cognitively
demanding than most people (Connelly, Gee, & Walsh, 2007).

However, when looking at (Richland, Bjork, Finley, and Linn
2005) study that was carried out in real life class rooms which shows the
benefit of teaching and how it produces a positive effect in the long term (Richland
2005). (Alter & Oppenheimer, 2009) stated that disfluency is the difficulty
associated with trying to complete a mental task, it has been said that
disfluency can be introduced simply by changing the font that a particular
piece of information is written.  In a
study that was done previously, it showed that when participants took part in a
mental test in a disfluent font the participant perform much better (Alter et al 2009) although, this test was not looking
for recall, but was actually looking for how information is processed. Disfluency
may give individuals the indication that they do not understand the
information, meaning that the individual is likely to try harder to learn the information
(Alter et al 2009).  Similarly, (Craik
and Tulving 1975) stated that the difficulty in reading a particular font could
lead to having enhanced cognitive processing.

(Diemand-Yaumana, Oppenheimera, and
Vaughan 2011) study also
showed that there are some benefits when information is shown in a font that is
considered disfluent, but there were some concerns, for instance they thought that
disfluency could be perceived as difficult, therefore student who are deemed to
be less able are likely to angry and frustrated, eventually giving up. This composed
two studies one Laboratory the other field, the first study had 21 facts about
three types of alien, twenty-eight participants all of them had 90 seconds to
learn the information, that was shown in two grayscale, disfluent fonts or one
black fluent font. Then this was followed by a 15-minute distraction, after the
distraction participants were ask 7 questions at random about aliens. The
fluent conditions participant answered 72.8% of the question correctly were as the
disfluent conditions answered 86.5%. in the second study all cases and across a
range of subjects and ability levels, retention was better in the disfluency
conditions.