In order to prevent climate change from getting out of control in the future, the mitigation plan is the solution in this case of circumstance. Greenhouse gas had an important function in keeping Earth warm, but too much of it can lead to serious issues. Carbon dioxide emissions from cars and factories are the main cause. To reduce this, cities like Copenhagen and Singapore have already started taking action. Their governments set a policy named ‘birth control policy’ on motor vehicles, every month there is only a fixed amount of vehicles is allowed to run on the road. Also, the vehicle’s import tax is 100 percent of the cost of buying the vehicle. Furthermore, almost all Singapore roads and freeways have congestion charges which automatically deduct payments from the car’s owner (p58). These changes made a significant reduction in GHG emission and traffic congestions. Although might not show a much of a difference in the next 10 years, but it definitely will show a difference in the next 100 years.
Adaptation strategy is the type of strategy that takes effect immediately. It’s very important to stand against the disasters caused by climate change before mitigation to become effective. Global sea level rising has been turning coastal areas into an underwater playground which is not a suitable environment for humans to live in. Places such as Hanoi in Vietnam, built on two sides of Red River, has been working on plans to stop or prevent damages caused by the flooding of the Red River. According to the UNDP article (2012, p. 55) ‘Developing water adaptation programs, including making the dykes stronger to protect the right side of Red River, and also create emergency teams to respond to emergencies to support the dykes.’ Another example of adaptation that has taken place is Bangkok in Thailand (UNDP, 2012, p. 56), pumped drainage systems are in use throughout its urban city lands. Pumping water out to sea reduce the impact of flooding but uses energy like air conditioning. Global warming means temperature rising abnormally, the only way to cool down housing in a short time is to turn on the air conditioning. Although air conditioning is a way to adapt to hot weather it is also a factor causing global warming. Adaptation strategy is a good on the short run, but it sometimes can worsen climate change.
Integration strategy is a strategy that combines both adaptation and mitigation into a better solution. This type of strategy can prevent damages caused by climate change and also reduce the long-term effect of climate change. For examples, in New York (Braw, 2013, P89), a city facing multiple disasters, have chosen to use green infrastructures. Which means to build environmentally friendly buildings, like growing trees on building roofs to keep the building cool, but also absorb water and carbon dioxide, or pavement streets that can allow water to flow back to the sea without electrical pumps. This reduces the energy usage at the same time of preventing too much rainfall causing a flood. Strategies like these are believed to be the best solution to good outcomes in both short terms and long terms.