I. of Planning and management of farms. Authors have

I.     
Review Of Different Decision
Support  Systems In Agriculture Sector:

 

A Decision Support System can be build
to provide up-to-date information through various electronic means such as
websites, Android Apps, SMS etc.

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B.Manos and others, (2004) 1. Basic
concepts, characteristics, structure of DSS, web based decision, process of
decision making in agriculture sector, roll payed by DSS in decision making in
agriculture has been described in the outset of this paper. This paper analyse
the contribution and application of DSS in agriculture and other fields, mainly
in the field of Planning and management of farms. Authors have made a taxonomy
survey based on the analysis of all the published applications during 1987 to
2001. The relevant classification of dss,
the types of DSS, operation model of research applied in DSS, category of
decisions in the field, and year of their applications. In the conclusion of
this survey authors decisions in agriculture are not based stable, simple and well-defined
rules but on knowledge, information, experiences and skills of the producers.
DSS have wide application in decision making concerning problems of the
agricultural sector with not well structure and complexity.

 

Vidya Kumbhar, T.P.Singh (2013) 2. At
the outset paper cited the status of Indian agriculture with reference to area,
production, irrigation has been projected. A justification is also given
regarding how naturally Indian land is better compared the peer countries in
the world. Authors of this paper highlighted the huge amounts of data of agriculture
research and advancements in different areas have made available. The biggest challenge
to extract knowledge from data it needs methods and techniques such as decision
support system to bridge the knowledge gap. This paper reviews and summarizes
the application decision support system, advisory decision support system in
different agriculture practices in Indian context. The decision making can be
made effective in agriculture domain by advanced information technology
techniques and integrating information.  Paper has given a conclusion that, in India,
simulation based techniques are widely applied in different areas like increase
crop water requirements, farm irrigation scheduling, crop yield, and to study
the impact of climatic parameters. Advisory systems are also playing an
important role in Indian scenario based on Information Communication
Technology. In India majority of the rural population lives in rain-fed
regions, therefore challenge before Indian agriculture is to transform rain-fed
farming into more sustainable and productive systems to better support the
population dependent on it. The soil nutrient parameters such as Nitrogen (N),
Phosphorous(P) and Potassium (K), the other parameters such as soil water
content,  evaporation, soil water
restoration index and soil minerals play important role in crop productivity.
There is a need to develop a DSS for effective management and utilization of
soil nutrients. The literature also shows that there is a need to develop a GIS
based decision support systems in India. The expert systems based on spatial
database on agriculture will improve the performance on agriculture management
which in turn will be helpful for sustainable agriculture management in India.

 

Ganesan V. (2007) 3. This paper focus
on development of Expert System in the area of agriculture for Integrated Crop
Management decision aids, encompass water management, fertilizer management,
crop protection systems and identification of implements. In order to remain
competitive, the modern farmer often relies on agricultural specialists and
advisors to provide information for decision-making. An expert system normally
composed of a knowledge base (information, heuristics, etc.), inference engine
(analyzes knowledge base), and end user interface (accepting inputs, generating
outputs). Software named ‘CROP-9-DSS’ incorporating all modern features like,
graphics, photos, video clippings etc. has been developed. This package will
aid as a decision support system for identification of pest and diseases with
control measures, fertilizer recommendation system, water management system and
identification of farm implements for leading crops of Kerala (India) namely
Coconut, Rice, Cashew, Pepper, Banana, four vegetables like Amaranthus, Bhindi,
Brinjal and Cucurbits. ‘CROP-9-DSS’ will act as an expert system to
agricultural officers, scientists in the field of agriculture and extension
workers for decision-making and help them in suggesting suitable
recommendations.

 

R.M. Sodtke 4, The author presents
theory, methods and results of a knowledge-based decision support system for
the agricultural practice and extension services. By the example of a
multi-objective DSS supporting the selection and management of cover crop
stands the methodical approach and results regarding DSS design, knowledge
acquisition, knowledge representation, and DSS evaluation is presented. Thus, the
paper especially focuses on the integration of expert knowledge and modeling
uncertainties by fuzzy inference technologies. Discussing the validity and
limits of the DSS as well as options for DSS application or integration into
other models will round off the presentation.

The DSS supports selecting appropriate
cropping strategies (decision variables like cover crop, cropping method,
sowing date, etc.) which depend on multiple cropping objectives (e.g.: nitrogen
conservation, soil protection against erosion) and non-(directly)-controllable
state measures in the decision space (e.g.: cropping situation, site
characteristics). This paper consider technical aspects, but current
requirement of the crop and sowing data is not considered in the decision
making.

 

Prof. Mrs. J.R.Prasad and other (2008)
5, This paper suggests
development of a decision support system for agriculture based on the natural
language processing. The agricultural sector which is core part of the Indian
economy, represents 35% of The impact of climate change on agriculture is
expected to impact on agricultural productivity and shifting crop patterns. The
analytical data about the rainfall pattern, soil structure of the area will be
maintained at back end, the system will retrieve the information based on the
interaction with the user, which will be a farmer in this case. The authors aim
to provide a user friendly decision support system. In addition to rain fall,
soil structure  farmers should be provide
the current status of each crop sown so that they can find the appropriate crop
that will give better returns

 

Wang Zhi-Qiang and other (2010) 6, in
this paper, an agricultural spatial DSS (ADSS) frame was studied and developed
to meet the increasing demands. A major premise of making right decisions is
the ability to accurately assess crop growth and food supply, and a scientific
decision-making process to provide appropriate strategies or countermeasures
based on them. This can be accomplished partly by using the decision support
system (DSS) that provide accurate and detailed information about crop growth
and food supply. The system, based on the spatial information technologies and
crop growth simulation methods, contains three parts: (1) a spatial
agricultural resources data warehouse has been constructed; (2) a crops
monitoring and simulation package was studied and developed; (3) a spatial
decision support package for food-supply security developed. The ADSS has been
applied to the Northeast China and been proven to be a successful tool for crop
growth monitoring and food security strategies. The ADSS was aimed at
suggesting efficient strategies for problems in crop growth and food safety as
well as providing timely and accurate information about crop growth and food
supply.

 

Waghmode M. L, Dr. P.P. Jamsandekar (2014)
7, This paper explores applications of DSS in different sectors and its
use.  DSS are used in many fields like
agriculture, medicine, business, education, railway etc. Following four DSS in
field of agriculture has been reviewed

A.     
DSS system named ADSS
Agricultural Decision support system was designed to predict crop prediction,
opportunity to forward plan in response to climate forecasts to influence
productivity at field & regional scales. 

B.     
DSSAT4 package, developed that
allow rapid assessment of several agricultural production systems around the
world to facilitate decision-making at the farm and policy levels 

C.     
Nature Serve Vista is a
powerful, flexible, and free decision-support system that helps farmers to
integrate conservation with land use and resource planning of all types

D.     
ProDEX is a software tool used
in environmental protection, air and soil pollution control & has been
developed by University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

 

Ayubu J. Churi and others (2013) 8,  This study aimed at investigative decision
support systems for assisting smallholder farmers to reduce climate risks and
increase crop productivity of semi-arid areas. Further, the study assessed
farm-level decisions used by the farmers for reducing climate risks; examined
information communication and knowledge sharing strategies for enhancing
decision making and designed a system for assisting the farmers in selecting
appropriate options for improving crop productivity. Development of DSS was
designed usng prototyping approach by allowing complete participation of end users.
The DSS was implemented and assessed by farmers as a useful tool for accessing
information and advisories in agricultural systems.  The  research is recommended to enable simple and
affordable mobile phones be used by farmers to access wealth of agricultural
knowledge and policies from research centres and government resources.

 

K.B. Matthews, M.G. Hutchins and G.
Hill 9, this paper argues that while in the main DSS tools have failed to
live up to expectations it may be that the expectations were unrealistic. The
design-use gap of DSS for environmental management is partially the inevitable cycle
of expectations experienced by any innovation. A number of techno-centric
silver bullets to the design-use gap have been identified including GIS
integration and the perennial user friendliness and transparency.  More recently frameworks, standards and
reusable components have been proposed. A growing body of evidence exists,
however, that indicates the usefulness of tools depends much less on their
technological or indeed scientific sophistication but on having a clear
understanding of  their role and how the
researcher will interact with the stakeholders.   The paper proposes multi-perspective
deliberation as an approach to bridging the design-use gap with the researchers
acting as facilitators and the tools or their outputs acting as boundary objects
through which issues can be explored. 

 

S. J. Yelapure, Dr. R. V. Kulkarni,
(2012) 10, this paper explains need of expert system in agriculture and
review of various expert systems in agriculture.   Author
reviewed 10 various DSS and Expert systems viz. CALEX is user friendly computer
program that simulates human problem solving behaviour, Malformation disease of
Mango i.e. ESMMDM, proposed expert system FuzzyXPest, related to Rice crop, the
development of an expert system for Oil-Palm disease control diagnosis(PEKA-SEWIT),
POMEE is an expert system for apple orchid management, UNU-AES is an expert
system in agri forestry management, CITEX an expert system is developed for
Orange production, NAPER-WHEAT is another expert system developed for irrigated
Wheat management, TOMATEX is a expert system developed for Tomato with two
subsystem, MANAGE is expert system developed to diagnose pest and disease for
rice crop. Paper concluded with a need to 
develop a system for soybean crop to guide to Growers to take decision
into different aspects of crop management like soil preparation, seed
selection, pest management, fertilizer management, weed control, irrigation
management, nutrition management etc.

Rait Mitra  Portal (2017) 11, The Department of
Agriculture has been created mainly to provide Agricultural Extension services
to farmers and to transfer the latest technical knowledge to the farming
community, introduction of high yielding varieties, laying demonstrations,
imparting training to farmers to improve skills & knowledge to boost up the
agricultural Production and productivity.

The Department of Agriculture
established “Raitha Samparka Kendras” at hobli(tahasil) level with the
objective of providing updated crop production related knowhow, arrangement of
critical agricultural inputs, primary soil and seed testing facilities and
arranging interface with public and private sector technologies.

These Kendras are established with the
objectives:

• To provide technical information on
crop selection, crop production related know-how, market information etc., to
farmers.

• To provide primary seed and soil
testing facilities locally.

 • To facilitate on site provision of critical
inputs like seeds, bio-fertilizers and plant protection chemicals.

This portal provides technical
information like seed, soil and fertilizers, there is scope for proving present
state of crop in order to select the crop.

 

Farmers Web Portal (2017) 12, This
web portal to make available relevant information and services to the farming community
and private sector through the use of information and communication
technologies, to supplement the existing delivery channels provided for by the
department. Farmers’ Portal is an Endeavour in this direction to create one
stop shop for meeting all informational needs relating to Agriculture, Animal
Husbandry and Fisheries sectors production, sale/storage of an Indian farmer.
Once in the Farmers’ Portal, a farmer will be able to get all relevant
information on specific subjects around his village/block /district or state.
This information will be delivered in the form of text, SMS, email and
audio/video in the language he or she understands. These levels can be easily
reached through the Map of India placed on the Home page. Farmers will also be
able to ask specific queries as well as give valuable feedback through the
Feedback module specially developed for the purpose.