Eutrophication word is arise from the word “eutrophie” in

 

Eutrophication

Introduction

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 The word “Eutrophication” come from the Greek
word “eutrophia” which “eu” itself gives the meaning of well while “trephein”
gives the meaning of nourish. It can be also said that this word is arise from
the word “eutrophie” in German. Eutrophication is also known as
hypertrophication that means the environment usually water body enriched with a
big amount of nutrient. This cause the growth of plants and algae in the water
body that leads to the oxygen level in that water decrease. For instance, when
the amount of nutrients in the water body increase gradually will bring the
effect of algae bloom or increase in the amount of phytoplankton. Eutrophication
has bring large effects for the environmental problem such as dead of the
aquatic plants and animals, change the quality of water and so on.

  So, what is eutrophication? In general,
eutrophication is the process that nutrient is oversupply or the amount of
nutrient is said to be exceed the normal range in a water body. This process
stimulated the growth of a large amount of phytoplankton and algae in the water
body in a shorter period which is also known as algae bloom. This algae bloom
will cause the depletion of dissolved oxygen in the water body.

  The main factor that contribute
eutrophication process to happen is too much of nutrient is supply to the water
body indirectly. This is usually caused by mankind problem such as discharge of
sewage, detergents or even fertilisers that contain phosphate and nitrogen
element. Besides, farming process which will use a big quantity of fertilisers
will also cause the nutrient discharge and accumulate in the water body.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The process of
eutrophication

Eutrophication occur
when there is large amount of artificial nutrient with organic or inorganic
mineral especially phosphate and nitrate are discharge or run-offs into a water
body. When the amount of nutrient is excess in the water body such as ponds,
lakes or even rivers that leads to the rapid growth of aquatic organisms. The
rapid growth of organisms such as phytoplankton and photosynthesis organisms
especially algae due to the high nutrients in water. This will cause an
exploration amount of algae growth in the water within a shorter period and
form algae bloom on the surface of water. Algae bloom will block the sunlight
to penetrate directly through the water as the algae covered the surface of
water. Those plants survive by carrying out photosynthesis process especially
the submerged plants will die as they cannot carry out process photosynthesis
and cause the amount of oxygen in water decrease indirectly. At the same time,
the amount of the aerobic bacteria will increase as the dead photosynthetic plant
will accumulates at the bottom of the water is then decomposed by aerobic
bacteria and used up all the oxygen in the water at a fast rate. As the reduced
amount of photosynthetic plant, the oxygen produced is insufficient for the
aerobic bacteria use to decomposed the dead plants. This will cause the
increase of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which means the level of dissolved
oxygen is decrease, amount of bacteria high and water is more polluted. Other
aquatic organisms such as fish, shrimp and so on will die due to the low level
of oxygen present in water for respiration purpose. The condition will be
worsen if the oxygen level decrease continuously until the water become
completely deoxygenated. The anaerobic bacteria and algae will growth in the
water and produce harmful gases or toxins by the green-blue bacteria such as
hydrogen sulphide will leads to the death of the aquatic organisms in the water
such as fish. At this state where the level of BOD is high, the level of
dissolved oxygen is decrease rapidly, the amount of bacteria high and water are
more polluted will cause leaving none of aquatic organisms but those organisms
which can survive in such condition such as leeches, Tubifex, worms, and sludge
worms to be appear and survive.

 

 

 

 

Used of Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD)

BOD are often used to
check the condition of water such as the level of oxygen and pollution, whether
it is suitable to support and provide sufficient oxygen for aquatic organisms
to life. BOD is also known as the level of dissolved oxygen present in the
water which can provide for the living organisms in the water to survive.
Besides, BOD also indicate the level pollution in the water. For example, when
there is large amount of aerobic bacteria present to decompose the dead aquatic
organisms or waste that accumulate in the water will cause the increase in the
BOD level and consequently the level of dissolved oxygen in the water will decrease
the amount of aerobic bacteria increase and also indicate that the water is
more polluted. So that is also means that, the increase of BOD level, subsequently
decrease of dissolved oxygen in the water. Meanwhile, the decrease of dissolved
oxygen level represent the level of the pollution in the water. As a
conclusion, the higher level of BOD which means the low level of dissolved
oxygen in the water represent the poor water quality which is not suitable for
aquatic organisms to survive. On the other hand, the Low level of BOD which
indicates the high level of dissolved oxygen in the water represent the good
water quality which is suitable for the aquatic organisms to survive.

Causes of eutrophication

The mainly reason that
caused the eutrophication to occur is the excess amount nutrient especially
phosphate and nitrate run-offs into the water body. So where does the nutrients
come from? One of sources is from the farming process. This is because in order
to let the plants grow more healthier, most of the farmer will use fertilizers
or even animal wastes that contain phosphorus and nitrate in it. Sometimes,
raining will cause the excessive fertilisers used by farmer to run-offs into
the water and cause the nutrient in the water increase which leads to
eutrophication to occur. In addition, the discharge of  untreated sewage and domestic wastes either
from the industrial or household area will also leads to the excess amount of
nutrient in water that will cause eutrophication to occur directly.

 

 

 

 

Effects of eutrophication

Eutrophication is some
aspect will bring some side effects not only disturb the balance of ecosystem but
living organisms as well. This is because eutrophication process will cause the
oxygen depletion to occur that will kill lots of aquatic organisms such as
fish, shrimp, plants and so on. In long run, living organisms will faced the
problem like shortage of food as one of the food source for living organisms is
come from aquatic organisms while the death of aquatic organisms will cause
human less one of the food sources. Furthermore, water is important for all the
living organisms as water is one of the basic requirement needed for living
organisms to survive. Eutrophication will cause the water become more polluted
and also water quality which is not suitable for living organisms to survive. Last
but not least, the death of marine life such as fish, shrimp and so on and
hence disturb the marine ecosystem. This will further maybe cause one of the
population of marine life disappear or growth in exploration amount as the food
chain of marine ecosystem has been disturb.

Ways to overcome

As we know that
eutrophication will bring many impact for the ecosystem and living organisms,
thus, we must take this responsible to overcome the problems. One of the ways
to overcome is to reduce mankind activities that leads to this occur. For
instance, farmer can reduce the use of phosphate and nitrate based fertilisers,
do not apply bare fields and even carry out crop rotation to prevent the
excessive amount of nutrients(phosphate and nitrate) entering and draining into
the water especially when it is raining. Secondly, industrial must treat the
sewage before it is discharge into water. This can prevent the large amount of
chemical such as phosphorus and nitrate discharge into water and prevent the
formation of algae broom indirectly. In order to achieve this goals, government
can reinforce the laws or even carry out randomly spot check and fine those
industry who fail to do this in order to maintain the balance of ecosystem.
Next, housewife or worker can choose to use biological detergent that contain
low phosphate instead of using the hard or soft detergents. In addition, classification
the domestic waste include food waste, do not disposing them into the drains or
rivers.