Being for general public, provision of warnings and advisories

Being the center of
weather and climate related services, Department of meteorology provides many
services in Sri Lanka. There are many services that MET department provides for
the government agencies, private sector and general public in keeping with
national interests and international standards. Some of them are provision of
meteorological and climate services to general public, fishery, shipping,
insurance and other interested sectors, 
weather forecast for general public, provision of warnings and
advisories weather hazards (bad weather and Tsunami warnings), Maintenance of
climatological database and climatological forecasts, supply the aviation and
Marine meteorological services, Provision of meteorological and climatological
services and data for the national development and research purposes, Encourage
study and research in meteorology and allied subjects while suppling awareness
and trainings for interested parties such as students, agriculture sectors,
police etc, and provision of specialized meteorological and climatological
services on request.

 

Various instruments and tests carried
out by the Meteorology department

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Mainly having an Instrument Division, they maintain
and calibrate instruments with the conformity of standards of practices and
provide those calibrated instruments to observation centers, inspect routine of
instruments at stations of meteorological , agrometeorological and
rainfall,  test, calibrate, and compare
the instruments and they make arrangements to prepare necessary supporting equipment
and the housing for the meteorological instruments.

Basically
there are main two types of data as surface data and Up-air data which they use
for the tests that they carry out. To collect these data, the department of
meteorology uses various instruments. Below is a concise list of them along
with their use.

 

1)     
Anemometer
–measures wind speed

2)     
Wind
vane – gives wind direction

3)     
Dry
bulb thermometer – normal ambient temperature

4)     
Wet
bulb thermometer – relative humidity, dew point and vapor pressure

5)     
Maximum
thermometer – maximum temperature of the day

6)     
Minimum
thermometer – minimum temperature off the day

7)     
Graph
meter – continuous variation of the temperature

8)     
Hair
hydrograph – relative humidity

9)     
Barometer
– atmospheric pressure

10)  Rain gauge – rainfall

11)  Sunshine recorder – sun shining
hours

12)  Balloons – temperature, pressure
and humidity of upper air

13)  Evaporation pan – rate of
evaporation

 

Other than Instruments there are many tests carried
out at the department and few of them are as follows.

1)      Pilot
balloon Observation – To find wind speed and direction. In this test they
tackle the path of the balloon using a theodolite.

 

2)      Rainfall
mearing test        – Automated rain
gauges may use to collect the rainfall data around the areas. Rainfall is measured
daily at 08.30 hours at these stations and the daily rainfall report is
obtained by the Department at the end of the month for processing.

 

 

Relevance of meteorological data in the
context of hydrology

 

Since the sections of Hydrology and Meteorology in
the Geophysical Union are organized and the respective fields of activity are
defined, the interrelationship between them is obvious. In the water cycle,
water condenses in clouds, is precipitated as rain or snow, then flow over and
through earth’s crust , accumulates in oceans and then again taken back to air
by evaporation and transpiration and condensed in to clouds. So in this process
hydrology works within that portion of this cycle which passage of water
through and over Earth’s crust while the section of Meteorology works within
the portion which water go through atmosphere. So in this cycle each field of
activity begins once another field ends. Hence one section is related to
another. So the obvious contact between the sections of hydrology and
Meteorology are in those phases which relate to transfer of water from the
atmosphere to earth’s crust (precipitation) and the reverse of it as transfer
from earth’s crust to the atmosphere. (Evaporation)

Overview of different aspects including
whether forecast , climate change.

 

Forecasting is analyzing the meteorological data and
studying their behavior with time factor and make the path to understand the
coming weather. Surface and upper air observation data, radar information,
persistence, NWP models and satellite data are tools used in forecasting.
Forecasting process is first analyze the data, verify them, check for
continuity, Extrapolate, use NWP, use climatology and experience and finally
preparation the forecast.

After the preparation of the forecast it must be
disseminated among the concerned stake holders and the public at the fastest
speed possible. Types of forecasting are Marine forecasting, Fleet forecast,
Aviation forecasting.

Climate change occurs naturally but has to be
concerned about it since it can effect for human nature. If the change occurs
slowly, living things including humans can adapt for it. But today due to the
human activities like driving, greenhouse effects, manufacturing, and clearing
of forests may cause for rapid changes in climate such as temperature rising, droughts,
changing of precipitation patterns, heat waves, rising of sea level, sudden and
stronger hurricanes. So using collected data Meteorology department predict the
upcoming climate changes which can occur.

Comment on the impact of the climate
change on hydraulic design

 

Due to the change in climate change rainfall,
evaporation and other factors may change. So if the rainfall is high intensity
of precipitation and evaporation may increase, so it will affect for the flood.
So in designing purposes flood changed flood patterns should consider.

Intensity of tropical cyclones may increase due to
climate change, So the structures should be built for more durability. And
flood levels may also change.

When sea level rises due to climate change the
affected countries and that areas should have sustainable hydraulic design.

References

·        
file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/bookeng%20(1).pdf

·        
Presentations of Department of
Meteorology