Antibiotic bacteria genetic mechanism does not change in the


Antibiotic is one of the greatest discovery made in
modern medicine. It acts to fight infections or disease that are caused by
bacteria. However, it does not act to kill viral infections or diseases such as
colds and flu. (NHS UK, 2016). Antibiotic is produced by bacteria and fungi
found in the natural environment. (Clardy, Fischbach and Currie, 2009). Different antibiotics have different mode of action of
attacking bacterial cells.  They are
divided into two groups on the basis of their effect on bacterial cells. Bactericidal
antibiotics induce cell death, whereas bacteriostatic antibiotics stop bacterial
growth (Pankey and
Sabath, 2018).  Antibiotics act on bacteria by; interfering in DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, cell synthesis
and protein synthesis (Kohanski, Dwyer and Collins, 2010). They could also be
divided on what type of bacteria they attack. Narrow spectrum antibiotics are
specific to certain groups or strain of bacteria and attack these. Whereas
broad spectrum antibiotics induce cell death to a wide range of bacteria (P et al., 2012)


Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs ever
developed, however soon after their discovery, bacteria are become more
resistant to them. Antibiotic resistant is a global crisis as it leads to an
increase in morbidity
rates, mortality rates, and healthcare costs. (6) the World Health
Organization has named antibiotic resistance as one of the three most important
public health threats of the 21st century
(World Health Organization, 2017). Bacteria
can become resistant to antibiotics when it is able to survive high toxic
concentration needed to kill them. They are able to survive and grow. (1). Resistance to antibiotic is a massive threat globally, in
practically in hospitals where bacteria have more of a chance to come into
close contact with one another. This leads to a spread of the resistance, as a
result harder to treat. ((Sosa et al., 2010) .  Antibiotic
resistance can be divided into two groups, depending on their actions. They can
either be intrinsic or acquired and if it involves changes to bacterial cells.  Intrinsic resistance refers to bacteria
genetic mechanism does not change in the presence of antibiotic selective pressure.

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The bacteria do get effected by the high toxic concentration from antibiotics. It
does this by carry out mechanism to protect itself. acquired resistance occurs
when a genetic mutation occurs or a mutated DNA is transferred into the
bacteria by another resistant bacteria ((Culyba, Mo and Kohli, 2015)




Bacteria carry out different mechanism to protect themselves from
antibiotics. They can either change the target site that antibiotic insert
their effect on or they can breakdown antibiotics. Bacteria has many methods
in preventing the antibiotics from reaching the target site. Efflux pump is
responsible for transporting substance such as antibiotics out of the bacteria
cell. As a result, this lowers the antibiotic concentration within the bacteria
which prevent it from inducing cell death. (Webber, 2002) bacteria can also reduce permeability of
their own membrane, thus preventing anything to pass through. Therefore, this
stops antibiotic to enter and destroy the bacteria. (Delcour, 2009). There is bacterial
enzyme that can inactivate certain antibiotics. ?-lactamase is an example, it acts on ?-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin’s.

(Munita and Arias, n.d.). Bacteria
can also exchange DNA between each other. This allows a spread of resistance
genes. DNA piece called a plasmid is able to be transferred between bacteria’s
easily. Bacteria can carry out a process known as conjugation, in which two
bacteria are able to connect to each other to transfer DNA plasmid. This increases
the spread of resistance genes from one bacteria to another. (Agn? et al., 2011) Viruses known as bacteriophages
can infect bacteria. These viruses carry resistant genes from one bacteria to
another, ultimately spreading antibiotic resistance. (Balcazar, 2014)


Certain bacteria
are an essential the environment. They are important for the global ecosystem. Without
them, natural compounds would not be broken down from soils and organic matter.

Antibiotics is naturally found in soils and surrounding environment. Unfortunately,
there is an increase in resistance to antibiotics. (Kummerer, 2004)

 Resistance is present within bacteria in the
environment through exposure to naturally occurring antibiotics. These bacteria
can spread resistance genes. This causes a massive risk to the human
population. Recent paper suggest that wild animals could also spread bacteria
resistance through their faeces into the surrounding environment. This could
eventually spread to livestock and to human. (Kummerer,