After are “Chinese Americans” who are Chinese race, but

After
Mexican immigrants and Indian immigrants, those Chinese immigrants are the
third-largest born in United States’ foreign group in the United States.
Chinese immigrants to the United States have two periods, one is in the
mid-nineteenth century and another is in the late 1970s to the present(Jie
Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). China
has a long history of immigrating to the United States and has a lot to do with
the history of China’s development, immigration legislation and policies, and the
United States foreign relations. After United States cancelled Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments in 1965, more
and more Chinese immigrant to U.S and the number of Chinese immigrants have
increased until now(Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). Chinese immigrants go to the United States for a better
life and more opportunities. When the Chinese first arrived in the United
States for finding jobs in the mid-19th century and escaped the harsh
conditions of their own country, the Chinese found jobs and settled in Chinatown.
Nowadays, many immigrants enter the country for better education and
employment. Immigrants have made great strides in achieving equality between
men and women in United States compare with China’s society.

  In this paper, it aims to point out the
issues that Chinese-born in China immigrants in the United States and also I
want to point out that Chinese immigrants have new challenges in a new
phenomenon.

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  For Chinese immigrants have many different definition,
some people think Chinese immigrants are “Chinese Americans” who are Chinese
race, but born in United States, second definition is Chinese immigrants are Chinese
born in China and their parents are not America and they immigrant to United
States. The third definition is a Chinese immigrant was living in China and
just moves to United States for few years ago. For each of these three groups, each
group of these three groups is sub-group of the previous population. By
definition that we mentioned before, a Chinese immigrant can be a non-citizen,
a United States citizen or a permanent resident of United States.

  Using age and gender, occupation and income,
and education to discover how Chinese immigrants face new issues and new challenges
in their life. Those issues and challenges that appear I believe it connect
with current United States policy toward China, and otherwise, current Chinese
policy toward United States.

Gender and age

 
A quarter of the Chinese in the United States live overseas. In 2016,
there were 2.6 million Chinese immigrants in the United States, accounting for
about 5% of the total number of births in the country (Jie Zong, Jeanne
Batalova, 2017). To be 16 years the median time for Chinese immigrants in the
United States, which means that most Chinese immigrants arrived after the
mid-1990s. In 2016, the average age of immigrants in Mainland China was the
same as that of the entire foreign-born population (44 years), higher than
those born in the United States (36 years) and lower than those born in Hong
Kong (52 years) (Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). Meanwhile, it has 54%
Chinese immigrants are females, as the gender and age group pyramid shows,
there are more women Chinese immigrants in the United States than male Chinese
immigrants (Aaron Terrazas, Jeanne Batalova, 2010). From my interviews about 10
people, who are Chinese immigrants, show the data about 40% is aged below 30
years old, 60% is aged among 36 to 55 years old. Also 70% is female Chinese
immigrants that from my interviewees, 30% is male Chinese immigrants. After
those interview, they, who are age among 36 to 55, point out that they face an
issue and challenges about languages and gender imbalance because elder people
can not easier to fit a new living circumstances especially they are in a
totally new circumstance. Aged below 30 years old has more strong adaptability
than elder people on the basis of 40% Chinese immigrants from my interviewees,
they mentions that they are more easier to learn English and make friends with
Americans.

Educational Attainments

 
 Compared with the total population born in
foreign countries and the United States, Chinese immigrants are much more
educated. In 2016, about half (over 25) of Chinese adults had at least a
bachelor’s degree, significantly higher than the overall immigrant population
and those born in the United States (30% and 32%) (Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova,
2017). The high education is related to the specific channels for Chinese
immigrants to enter the United States. Many Chinese immigrants did not come to
the United States as international H-1B highly skilled temporary workers (need
a bachelor’s degree) after 1965, and then apply for permanent residence in the
United States. (Jie Zong, Jeanne Batalova, 2017). In the 2015 to 2016 school
year, it nearly 329,000 Chinese student entered higher education institutions
in the United States. In the 1 million foreign students studying in the United
States, Chinese students are 1/3. About 43% of Chinese students enrolled in
science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) areas (Jie Zong, Jeanne
Batalova, 2017). Based on these data, a new issue and challenge comes out, many
high educational Chinese student still hard to apply for H1B (a non-immigrants
visa) because of supply exceeds demand. It means after Chinese students graduate
from high education institutions, many people competition for one position and
it makes get H1B less compare with other foreign students who apply H1B for working
visa. According to my interviewees, there are 3 college students concern about graduate
to find a job and apply H1B. 6 people from my interviewees said nowadays is
very hard to get H1B and also for green card even you have PHD degree
background, they might be go back to China to find opportunities.

Occupation, Income and Poverty

 
Chinese immigrants are highly represented
in the areas of business administration, finance, information technology, other
science and engineering, education and training, media and entertainment, and
medical occupations. Male Chinese
immigrants are more likely to be engaged in other healthcare practitioners and
service jobs that may be engaged in selling occupations. Women Chinese
immigrants engaged in social services and laws, other health care workers,
administrative support for occupations less likely (Terrazas and Batalova 2008).
Compare with other occupation, those high technological and business or STEM
jobs have more income. The average income of households headed by immigrants
from Mainland China is $ 56,000 while the total number of immigrants and
locally born domestic helpers is $ 54,000 and $ 58,000 (Jie Zong, Jeanne
Batalova, 2017). After Chinese immigrants increase, they face a new issue which
is inequality in labor market. According to my interviewees, there are 9 people
have jobs and they mentions that when they have job’s interview, some
interviewer will ask their identity and language fluency. 40% of my
interviewees said that they get reject just because their English has strong
Chinese accent and also they are green card not United States citizen. 30% of
my interviewees said they are failure some interviews because those companies
prefer to choose local American to them.   
 

 
Even as Chinese immigrants make up a larger number share the U.S.
population, but they still face obvious challenges. First, language and cultural
barriers and also political parties tend to ignore Chinese and Asian immigrants
and make it difficult for them to reach them. Another worry for Chinese immigrants
is the stereotypical minority stereotypes that most Asian immigrants have
realized the American dream. In fact, Asian immigrants include many Asian
groups with very different needs and divergences. They cannot exempt some of
the poverty or unemployment problems facing all the groups in the United
States. As populations grow, politicians, legislators and the general public
have a better understanding of these communities and people needs. By
permanently resolving the parliamentary reform of the current immigration
system, it will help Chinese immigrant communities to achieve economic success,
unite their families and further integrate into American society.