Abstract which can be generalized to use in any

Abstract

Human Made
wars are the worst way of destruction. Other than wars, disasters makes the
destruction on property and lives. Careful disaster management is important to
mitigate that issue is very relevant to Sri Lanka with the recent trend of exponential
rise in Disasters. Here it is conclusive that number of Disaster related studies
respect to the technological development are carried out in the recent past. Disaster
identification systems and disaster classification systems are also developed
by numerous contributors to take the subjective area developed. Utilization on Disaster
ethics and response utilization with humanitarian activities is required to
address the framework development and creating proactive solutions.Theoretical development
in Evaluating Disaster Management process, which can be generalized to use in
any circumstance is a future research requirement for the development of the
subject area.

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Keywords: Disaster Management; Framework
Development; Disaster Ethics; Disaster Response; Disaster Technology

 

1. Introduction

Over the
ten year period from 2005 to 2014 1.5 billion public have been affected by
disasters in the world, 23 million people have been made homeless, 1.4 million
have been injured and over 700,000 people have lost their lives due to
disasters. The total economic loss due to disasters in these ten years is $1.3
trillion (Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2015).
In order to identify the current knowledge and studies carried out around
Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current disaster management system
as per the availability, literature was divided in to six topics: Information
Systems use to analyze disasters, Disaster occurrence and response, Solution
creation on disasters, Humanitarian involvement in disaster management, Vulnerability
to Disasters | Floods in Sri Lankan context and Disaster recovery.
Knowledge identifying on creation and continuation of Disaster Management framework
as well as modifying is where the mainly literature review is focused on.

 

2. Literature Review

2.1 Information Systems use to
analyze Disasters

According
to the Mathias Leidig’s and Richard Teeuw’s Research on the nature of freely
available geospatial software and information systems in the context of
disaster management the use of geospatial data is crucial to effective disaster
management, from preparedness to response and recovery. However, to make efficient
use of available data and information – before, during and after a disaster –
reliable software is required. The software applications examined in this paper
range from Geographical Information Systems, to the processing of remotely sensed
images, crowd-source mapping, web applications and content management systems.
Trends and challenges are considered, and guidelines are given, to foster and
encourage the provision of information by Freeware and Open Source Software.
Free geoinformatics can help to optimize the limited financial, technological
and manpower resources that many organizations face, providing a sustainable
input to analytical activities (Mathias Leidig, 2015).  

Milan
Erdelj’s, Michal Krol’s and Enrico Natalizio’s work identifies the role of
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the
context of natural disaster management. Main applications of systems involving
WSN and UAV are classified according to the disaster management phase, and a
review of relevant research activities is provided along with the research and
development challenges that still remain unsolved (Milan Erdelj, 2017). The main objectives of these works was
to present technical results useful to improve the wellbeing of people, and
push the state of the art one step forward in the definition of a complete
disaster management system

Also when
it comes to Landslides, Vu Van Khoa’s and Shigeru Takayama’s paper describes a
system that uses a wireless sensor network (WSN) to monitor landslide disasters
in remote areas. The system consists of 3 subsystems called the Local Sensing
Node Network System (LSNNS), the Cloud System (CS), and the Host System (HS).
To monitor the field status and condition of the nodes remotely, they set up an
appropriate management scheme in which the HS collects various data types in
categories: node status, node data, LSNNS status, and LSNNS data. Equivalent
lists are available to manage the HS and CS. Each data type contributes to 1 or
2 key analyses in determining a temporary situation. Experiments are conducted
to investigate some featured data for landslide monitoring application,
including node posture, dynamic change of topology, landslide occurrence
recognition, and node location change. Where WSN is a candidate for monitoring
natural disasters, this remote management scheme provides the surveillance
process with extra information and helps the operator to comprehend the
situation and maneuver with less effort (Vu Van Khoa, 2018).

2.2 Disaster Occurrence and Response

Disasters—natural
and human-made—are an important force in shaping Earth’s ecosystem (Lee, 2018). Natural disasters
struck long before modern humans inhabited the planet and will likely continue
as long as Earth exists. The evolution of humans and subsequent development
necessary to sustain modern communities has also affected the ecosystem. There
are multiple phases and goals of disaster response, and these change over time.
In each of the phases of disaster response, various questions arise about what
we should do and why. Disaster ethics attempts to answer questions about what
we ought to do to prevent and respond to disaster situations. Comprehensive
treatment of disaster ethics is still developing in this young field. Like any
emerging field, there are numerous important contributors developing approaches
from their own perspective. A substantial future challenge for the field will
be to bridge the numerous ethics subfields that play a role in doing what is
right during a disaster.

2.3 Solution creation on Disasters

General
agreement exists effective disaster management faces constraints related to
knowledge sharing and a need for real-time research responses. Extreme case
examples of disasters especially vulnerable to these challenges are global
pandemics, or disease outbreaks, in which data required for research response
are only available after the start of an outbreak (WilliamCallaghan, 2016). This paper argues
the developing field of probabilistic innovation (innovation increasing
probability of solving societal problems through radically increasing
coordination of volumes of problem-solving inputs and analysis), and its
methodologies, such as those drawing from crowdsourced R&D and social
media, may offer useful insights into enabling real time research capabilities,
with important implications for disaster and crisis management. Three paradigms
of disaster research are differentiated, as literature is related to theory
offered by post normal science, Kuhnian ‘normal science’ and Lakatosian
‘structural science,’ and the goal of achieving real time research problem
solving capacity in disaster crisis situations. Global collaborative innovation
platforms and large-scale investments in emerging crowdsourced R&D and
social media technologies together with synthesis of appropriate theory may
contribute to improved real time disaster response and resilience across
contexts, particularly in instances where data required to manage response is
only available after disasters unfold.

2.4 Humanitarian involvement in
Disaster Management

Since the
1950s, the number of natural and man-made disasters has increased exponentially
and the facility location problem has become the preferred approach for dealing
with emergency humanitarian logistical problems. To deal with this challenge,
an exact algorithm and a heuristic algorithm have been combined as the main
approach to solving this problem is proposed by Chawis Boonman, Mikiharu
Arimura and Takumi Asada.
Owing to the importance that an exact algorithm holds with regard to enhancing
emergency humanitarian logistical facility location problems, their paper
conducts a survey on the facility location problems that are related to
emergency humanitarian logistics based on both data modeling types and problem
types and examine the pre- and post-disaster situations with respect to
facility location, such as the location of distribution centers, warehouses,
shelters, debris removal sites and medical centers. The survey examine the four
main problems: deterministic facility location problems, dynamic facility location
problems, stochastic facility location problems, and robust facility location
problems. For each problem, facility location type, data modeling type,
disaster type, decisions, objectives, constraints, and solution methods evaluated
and real-world applications and case studies presented (Chawis Boonmee, 2017).

Fatih
Cavdur, Merve Kose-Kucuk and Asli Sebatli considered the problem of temporary
disaster response facility allocation for temporary or short-term disaster
relief operations, propose a solution approach and illustrate it with an
earthquake case study in Turkey. A two-stage stochastic program is developed
for the solution of the problem to minimize the total distance traveled, the
unmet demand and the total number of facilities (considering the potential
difficulties to access the facilities), where facility allocation and service
decisions are performed in the first and second stages, respectively (Fatih Cavdur, 2016). An earthquake case
study developed by the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management
Authority (mostly referred as AFAD in Turkey) is used to test their model. They
used five different scenarios, each representing a different after-disaster
situation (i.e., traffic conditions, time etc.), with its respective
probability of occurrence, to model the demand uncertainty for relief supplies.
They first solve the deterministic model for each scenario, and then, the
corresponding stochastic program. In addition to the defined objectives of the
model, quality of each solution is analyzed in terms of average walking
distance, demand satisfaction rate and average facility utilization.

As per S.
Rajakaruna, Previous researches has shown that Logistic skills are a basic
requirement for employment and career development within the Humanitarian
Logistics (HL) field. These skills requirements are changing in various
logistics functions, groups and cultures. At the same time increasing global
disasters are adding to the challenges that are adversely affecting the HL
supply chain. Skills of the logisticians are therefore a necessity to
effectively manage the supply chain in a disaster (S.Rajakaruna, 2017). It is vital to
research in to the area of HL, considering the recent issues that are being
faced after every disaster in Sri Lanka. A number of researches have been
carried out in finding skills of the humanitarian logisticians at global level.
However, as to date there has been limited discussion on the skills of
humanitarian logisticians in the Sri Lankan humanitarian field. In his research
a Factor Analysis (FA) was conducted in order to find the skills of
humanitarian logisticians in Sri Lanka. Skills which were identified earlier by
researchers were further tested in order to find the applicability in the local
HL landscape and identified deferent set of component than in the previous
studies. Results will assist the training and recruiting humanitarian
logisticians.

2.5 Vulnerability to Disasters |
Floods in Sri Lankan context

During the
last four decades floods have been the main disaster that affected the highest
number of families in Sri Lanka. At present, flood risk reduction is seriously
taken into consideration by relevant authorities taking mitigation actions to
save lives and properties. Literature on gender and disasters shows the
importance of gender in disaster mitigation to bring better results (Kushani De Silva, 2014).
Kushani De Silva’s and Ramanie Jayathilaka’s study is an attempt to understand
the importance of gender dimension in a flood disaster risk reduction project
implemented in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted in two Grama Niladari
divisions Pamunuwila and Galedanda in the Gampaha district where the project
“cleaning Natha Ela” was implemented during in to address the issue related to
floods in the area. The overall objective of the research was to understand,
whether gender has been adequately addressed in the project management cycle of
the flood risk reduction project and its consequences.
The study revealed that women were more vulnerable to the flood disaster
compared to men, due to differences in employment status, income, gendered
social roles, social norms and restrictions governing behaviour. Even though
the communities experienced a significant reduction of flood damages after the
project implementation, the impact on the community could have been much
greater if the project had considered the gender aspects related to floods.
The study thus reinforces the argument that gender planning is vital for any
development activity. In the case of cleaning the Natha ela project, gender was
neutral from the planning stage to the implementation stage. The low
representation of the women in the decision making process also contributed to
the lack of gender sensitivity in the project. Thus the study clearly revealed
that although disasters affect both men and women, the impact could be
different and therefore mitigation efforts need to addresses such differences
to make both men and women resilient to flood disaster.

2.6 Disaster Recovery

Post-disaster
recovery of Micro, Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) remains an issue
of interest for policy and practice given the wide scale occurrences of natural
disasters around the globe and their significant impacts on local economies and
SMEs. Asian Tsunami of December 2004 affected many SMEs in southern Sri Lanka (S.W.S.B.Dasanayaka, 2014).
The study of S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka and Gayan Wedawatta identify the main issues
encountered by the Tsunami affected SMEs in Southern Sri Lanka in the process
of their post-tsunami recovery. The study: a) identifies tsunami damage and
loss in micro and SMEs in the Galle district; b) ascertains the type of
benefits received from various parties by the affected micro and SMEs; c)
evaluates the problems and difficulties faced by the beneficiary organizations
in the benefit distribution process; and d) recommends strategies and policies
for the tsunami-affected micro and SMEs for them to become self-sustaining
within a reasonable time frame. Fifty randomly selected tsunami-affected micro
and SMEs were surveyed for this study. Interviews were conducted in person with
the business owners in order to identify the damages, recovery, rehabilitation,
re-establishment and difficulties faced in the benefit distribution process.
The analysis identifies that the benefits were given the wrong priorities and
that they were not sufficient for the recovery process. In addition, the many
governance-related problems that arose while distributing benefits are
discussed. Overall, the business recovery rate was approximately 65%, and
approximately 88% of business organizations were sole proprietorships.
Therefore, the policies of the tsunami relief agencies should adequately
address the needs of sole proprietorship business requirements. Consideration
should also be given to strengthen the capacity and skills of the entrepreneurs
by improving operational, technological, management and marketing skills and
capabilities.

3. Conclusion

There are
studies carried out to evaluate the disaster impact on economic nature, especially
in Sri Lankan context Tsunami and economic impacts are comprehensively
evaluated. Information systems use to analyze Disasters is an area recently
many researches are done. Also Disaster ethics and generalizing disaster management
process is a recent topic widely discussed. But it is very visible that areas
like laws and regulations of disaster management and landslide disaster management
related studies are lacking.
Current trends on the Disaster management related technology development can
create a positive impact on many independent as well as related event
overcoming. Understanding the lacking knowledge gap and developing tools on
current topics are the objective values of this Research.  

 

References

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Fatih Cavdur, M. K.-K. (2016). Allocation of temporary
disaster response facilities under demand uncertainty: An earthquake case
study. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, 159 – 166.

Kushani De Silva, R. J. (2014). Gender in the context
of Disaster Risk Reduction; A Case Study of a Flood Risk Reduction Project in
the Gampaha District in Sri Lanka. Procedia Economics and Finance, 18,
873 -881.

Lee, L. (2018). Disaster Ethics. Encyclopedia of
the Anthropocene, 4, 301-305.

Mathias Leidig, R. T. (2015). Free software: A review,
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S.Rajakaruna, A. (2017). Identifying key skill sets in
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S.W.S.B.Dasanayaka, G. W. (2014). Tsunami Disaster
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in Southern Sri Lanka. Procedia Economics and Finance, 18, 584 – 591.

(2015). Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk
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Vu Van Khoa, S. T. (2018). Wireless sensor network in
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WilliamCallaghan, C. (2016). Disaster management,
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