4. of sensor with the Arduino digital I/O pin

4.
Materials

                             Components are
basic building block of every project / robot. To make your robot efficient and
to give the desired output the components be chosen wisely. The components or
materials used in this robot are chosen on the basis of their efficiency and
range. Here is the list of the following components we have used:

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I.           
12V DC Motor.

                
II.           
L298N Motor Driver.

             
III.           
Arduino UNO.

             
IV.           
Flame Sensor.

               
V.           
Smoke Sensor.

             
VI.           
IR Proximity sensor.

          
VII.           
Ultrasonic Sensor.

       
VIII.           
12V DC Water Pump.

             
IX.           
Servo Motor.

4.1
12V DC Motor:

         

                                                   

Fig.
12V DC Motor with Shaft

 

 

4.2.
L298N Motor Driver:

                              The L298 is an
incorporated solid circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 bundles. It is
a high voltage, high flow double full-connect driver outlined to acknowledge
standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads, for example, transfers,
solenoids, DC and venturing engines. Two empower inputs are given to empower or
handicap the gadget freely of the information signals. The producers of the
lower transistors of each scaffold are associated together and the comparing
outer terminal can be utilized for the association of an outer detecting
resistor. An extra supply input is given with the goal that the rationale works
at bring down voltage.

Fig.
Motor Driver L298N

4.3.
Arduino UNO:

Arduino UNO is a
microcontroller with board based on ATmega328P. It has 6 analog I/O pins and 14
digital I/O pins. Out of 14 I/O pins 6 digital I/O pins can be used as PWM. It
has 16 MHz quartz crystal. Its operating voltage is 6V – 20V (limited) or 5V –
12V (recommended).

Fig.
Arduino UNO Board

Other Specs are given in
the table below:

Table
4.1: Arduino UNO Specs

 

 

 

4.4.
Flame Sensor:

                                   An IR flame
sensor module includes an IR receiver, capacitor, resistor, variable resistor
(potentiometer) and LM393. It is able to trace infrared light which ranges
between 700nm – 1000nm. This module converts the infrared light into current
changes. And we can change its sensitivity through Potentiometer (Variable
resistor). Its detection angle is 60 degrees.

Fig.
Flame sensor (labeling)

 

                                       Flame
sensor interface with Arduino is quite simple. First connect the Vcc pin of the
sensor with Arduino 5V pin. Second connect the GND pin of sensor with the
Arduino GND pin. Now finally connect the D0 pin of sensor with the Arduino
digital I/O pin (let it be pin 7) as shown in the fig below.

Fig.
Flame sensor interference with Arduino

4.5.
Smoke Sensor:

                              The voltage that
the sensor outputs changes accordingly to the smoke/gas level that exists in
the atmosphere. The sensor outputs a voltage that is proportional to the
concentration of smoke/gas.

In other words, the
relationship between voltage and gas concentration is the following:

1. The greater the gas
concentration, the greater the output voltage

2. The lower the gas
concentration, the lower the output voltage

Fig.
Working Mechanism of MQ – 2 Sensor

4.6.
IR Proximity Sensor:

Fig.
IR Proximity Sensor

                                 

Fig.
Working of IR proximity Sensor

 

 

 

 

4.7.
Ultrasonic Sensor:

Fig.
Ultrasonic Sensor

                        It is a module that
measure the gap between the sensor and the object with the help of sound wave.
It measures the gap by sending out a sound wave at a specific frequency and
wait until the sound wave bounce back. Now it will record the elapsed time between
the generated sound wave and the bounce back of the sound wave. Then it will
calculate the gap between the object and sensor. Equation is given below:

Fig.
Working Mechanism of Ultrasonic Sensor

4.8.
12V DC Water Pump:

                                  It Operates
on DC 12V and 1.1A. Its power is 20 Watt. It has a capacity of throwing 10L/min
with a height of 5m (16ft). It has following features:

v  High
efficiency.

v  Low
Consumption.

v  Low
Noise (